, Competition from large Ice Age predators was rather high. , In a sample of 206 Neanderthals, based on the abundance of young and mature adults in comparison to other age demographics, about 80% of them above the age of 20 died before reaching 40. It’s hard to tell species apart based purely on the jaw, particularly when the jaw is notable for being so similar to another species!  Though they were likely apex predators, they still competed with cave bears, cave lions, cave hyaenas, and other large predators. , The 44,000 year old Moldova I open-air site, Ukraine, shows evidence of a 7 m × 10 m (23 ft × 33 ft) ring-shaped dwelling made out of mammoth bones meant for long-term habitation by several Neanderthals, which would have taken a long time to build. Since reindeer remains were the most abundant, the use of less abundant bovine ribs may indicate a specific preference for bovine ribs. The vernacular name of the species in German is always Neandertaler ("inhabitant of the Neander Valley"), whereas Neandertal always refers to the valley.  There are distinct regional variants of the Mousterian industry, such as: the Quina and La Ferrassie subtypes of the Charentian industry in southwestern France, Acheulean-tradition Mousterian subtypes A and B along the Atlantic and northwestern European coasts, the Micoquien industry of Central and Eastern Europe and the related Sibiryachikha variant in the Siberian Altai Mountains, the Denticulate Mousterian industry in Western Europe, the racloir industry around the Zagros Mountains, and the flake cleaver industry of Cantabria, Spain, and both sides of the Pyrenees. , Shanidar 3 died from complications from a stab wound, likely originating from a light-weight, long-range projectile, a technology that possibly only H. sapiens had, which implies Neanderthal/modern human violence. William Golding's 1955 novel The Inheritors depicts Neanderthals as much more emotional and civilised.
, In modern humans, skin and hair colour is regulated by the melanocyte-stimulating hormone—which increases the proportion of eumelanin (black pigment) to phaeomelanin (red pigment)—which is encoded by the MC1R gene. That is, men, women, and children all had to be involved in hunting, instead of men hunting with women and children foraging. Boyd, R., & Silk, J. ", "Assessing the significance of Palaeolithic engraved cortexes. , The graves of children and infants, especially, are associated with grave goods such as artefacts and bones.  In 1995, Trinkaus estimated that about 80% succumbed to their injuries and died before reaching 40, and thus theorised that Neanderthals employed a risky hunting strategy ("rodeo rider" hypothesis).